Color perception has been the subject of intense debate in fields such as physiology, neurology, and the philosophy of perception. Humans see colors thanks to special cells in the retina called cones, which are stimulated according to the wavelength they receive.. These cones are divided into three types: L (long) that reaches its maximum absorption at 560 nanometers, associated with red; M (intermediate) that is excited with a peak of 520 nanometers, corresponding to green; and S (short) that absorbs at 420 nanometers, linked to blue. This vision capability is based on the RGB model.
Although cones are essential for visual function, the central organ of vision is the brain, since it interprets the stimuli sent by the eye. Therefore, the colors are interpretations subjective of the brain. Although some differences in perception are due to the nature and distribution of the cones in the retina, others Factors such as gender, ethnicity, language, and geographic origin also influence how we see colors.
The language influence in color perception is evident in some cases. Some languages do not differentiate between green and blue, using a single term for both colors, which may affect the ability of speakers to differentiate between them. Evidence suggests that it is language that influences color perception, and people raised in different language backgrounds may perceive colors differently.
Genetic variations in L cones can affect color perception. Some people may have L cones stimulated by wavelengths more red or orange. Females with XX chromosomes may have both variants of L cones on their retinas simultaneously, which has led to speculation as to whether this gives them a broader spectrum of perceptible colors.. However, research suggests that both variants overlap tightly and would not provide significant improvement in color discrimination.
These differences in color perception are influenced by both genetic and sociocultural factors, which challenges the idea that we all experience the visual world in the same way. Recognizing the subjectivity of colors invites us to appreciate the diversity of human experiences and to question our understanding of the visual reality that surrounds us, offering an exciting approach to how we perceive and communicate the beauty and complexity of the world.